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Interesting facts about the Calendar
Over a thousand years ago, God put in the Quran ...
In the history of the calendar systems, the modern calendar with its 12 months broken into 365 days is relatively new. In the past, we've seen a variety of sola and lunar calendars which periodically made adjustments to bring the calendar in line with the observed solar patterns. Some calendars had 10 months (e.g., the Roman calendar). The Mayan calendar had 260 days.
The Quran makes it clear that God always intended the calendar to be 12 months in length (Quran 9:36). Since both solar and lunar calendars are in place, God tells us He has created both the sun & moon as calculation devices. Using the lunar calendar to determine the time of Hajj (2:189) and Ramadan is equitable, since it allows people from both hemispheres a balance in terms of time of the year and length of the day. If Hajj always fell during "harvest season" (for example), farmers would have a hard time observing it.
[6:96] At the crack of dawn, He causes the morning to emerge. He made the night still, and He rendered the sun and the moon to serve as calculation devices. Such is the design of the Almighty, the Omniscient.
Interestingly, we also see that the word "month" is mentioned in the Quran 12 times. And "day" 365 times. (More: mathematical observations on the calendar).
The plural form, "days", is mentioned in the Quran 30 times.
God's System: Twelve Months Per Year*
[9:36] The count of months, as far as GOD is concerned, is twelve.* This has been GOD's law, since the day He created the heavens and the earth. Four of them are sacred. This is the perfect religion; you shall not wrong your souls (by fighting) during the Sacred Months. However, you may declare all-out war against the idol worshipers (even during the Sacred Months), when they declare all-out war against you, and know that GOD is on the side of the righteous.
*9:36 The word "month" is mentioned in the Quran 12 times, and "day" 365 times.
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