As part of the campaign of hatred against Abu Bakr, Aisha’s father and first successor after the Prophet, the story was fabricated by the worshipers of Ali.
Sectarian strife, many years after the Prophet’s death, created a plethora of lies against the three Khalifas who preceeded Ali (Abu Bakr, Omar, and Othman) [see Qur’an 6:159].
Abu Bakr was the servant of God, and closest friend of the Prophet, who was hated most by the early Shi’as.
Verses 11 through 20 of Sura 24 have nothing to do with Aisha. Like the vast majority of Qur’an, these verses are always current; they apply to the believers here and now; they instruct us regarding the possible occurrence of any accusation against any one of us.